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Teachers use many teaching approaches to impart knowledge: Pitting one against another harms education

 August 2021 Alan Reid, Professor Emeritus, University of South Australia

In this article Alan Reid challenges the dichotomy constantly raised by various academics and the media. Most recently an article in the Weekend Australian by Noel Pearson has raised this dichotomy again that ‘explicit teaching is the answer’ and we should ‘forget inquiry-based learning’.
Reid points out there are three major flaws in this argument. First, teachers use more than one approach and second, not all inquiry-based methods are the same. Finally, Reid states that the data used to justify this argument are flawed.
Keywords: Explicit teaching  Inquiry-based learning  Education debate  PISA scores

Enhancing the STEM Framework: Combining Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics with Stamina, Transdisciplinarity, Engagement and Mindfulness prepares students for real-world problems

  Manak, J. A. and Puig, E. A., 2021
Science and Children  National Science Teaching Association

The authors argue that for students to become global solution-seekers of personal and real-world issues, teachers need to foster students to become engaged, motivated, and literate citizens who are able to work across disciplines, cultures, and identities.
The article outlines a framework that builds upon traditional STEM ideas proposing that stamina, transdisciplinarity, engagement, and mindfulness are interdependent factors that support learning.
The framework is about creating conditions of learning that motivate students to look, wonder, and reflect across disciplines and to integrate their developing literacy knowledge and lived experiences as they engage in their world.
Taking these factors into account will assist in curriculum design when enhancing STEM education.
Key words: Stamina  Engagement  Mindfulness  Transdisciplinary  STEM  Project-Based Learning  Inquiry  Literacy

Australian Curriculum Review Response

28 June 2021
FFLL Response to Australian Curriculum Consultation Survey Questions

How the Science of Learning and Development Can Transform Education

May 2020
Initial Findings of the SoLD ( Science of Learning & Development) Alliance.  

This paper proposes that all children can thrive and learn when the ways in which they are educated and developed are transformed. As well as providing some important understandings about learning (see phrases that follow) it outlines 8 key findings that overlap and support learning in integrated ways. These are: Potential; Malleability: Individuality: Context; Relationships; Integration; Continuum & Meaning Making.
The paper provides an explanation of each of these elements that the reader will find useful, as is the diagram of the ways in which they integrate to support learning.
While it doesn’t have recommendations for the ways in which systems may need to be redesigned it does provide a starting point. Teachers in classrooms may already, or may begin to reflect upon these elements and weave them into their instructional practices as they continue to develop ways to support the learners in their care.
Key words/phrases:

- All children can learn and thrive.

- Every child, no matter their background, has the potential to succeed in school and life.

- No two young people learn in precisely the same ways.

- Children's ability to learn is strongly intertwined with their social, emotional, cognitive and physical needs.

- The environments, experiences and cultures of a young person's life are more influential than their genes.

- The human brain is remarkably malleable and can be changed by strong supportive relationships and the conditions they create.

Teaching Decisions That Bring the Conditions of Learning to Life

Debra Crouch and Dr Brian Cambourne

The authors have collaborated to discuss the eight Conditions of Learning that Brian has been describing for teachers for quite some time. They also discuss the importance of the Four Processes that Enable Learning in relation to the effectiveness of the conditions. Detailed explanations of the conditions and the processes are described as they would occur in classrooms in the teaching of reading and specific examples are provided to explain what would occur in Read-aloud, Shared Reading, Guided Reading and Independent Reading. Teachers will find this article extremely helpful as they think about their theory and practice about the teaching of reading. For more detailed information educators will be pleased to know that Brian and Debra have written a book,  Made for Learning - How the Conditions of Learning Guide Teaching Decisions, published by Richard Owen, 2020.

Key words: Conditions of Learning  Reading 

Why make-believe play is an important part of childhood development

Tracy Gleason in The Conversation April 2016

Young children love to engage in imaginative play. This article explains why such play is more than lots of fun: it can also be very beneficial for children’s development of their creativities, understanding of and empathy for others, and social skills. Some children also create an imaginary friend, perhaps to enable them to explore what friendship means without needing to face some of the challenges! Engaging in imaginative play with others also requires negotiation and communication skills. The role of supportive adults is also discussed.
Keywords: Imaginative play  Pretend play  Fantasy play  Imaginary friends    Childhood development   Perspective taking  Negotiation

The Teacher's Tool Kit For Literacy

Cue Learning

The Teacher’s Tool Kit For Literacy is a free podcast for motivated teachers and school leaders who want the latest tips, tricks and tools to inspire their students and school community in literacy learning. 

In each episode, Sharon and Phil Callen draw on our 30+ years of literacy teaching and consulting experience to provide you with practical insights and resources that you can apply in the classroom straight away. They also regularly bring in amazing guests to share their literacy learnings and stories.

It’s live now on Apple Podcasts, Spotify and other major podcast players, so  subscribe now. Check it out:
Key words: Literacy  Reading  Writing 

Seven Rules of Engagement: What’s Most Important to Know about Motivation to Read

Gambrell, Linda B. (2011) The Reading Teacher Vol.65 Issue 3 pp 172-178

International Reading Association

Linda Gambrell shares the findings from a major international study – that interest in reading predicted students’ reading comprehension and that students who enjoyed reading the most performed significantly better than students who enjoyed reading the least. Then Gambrell gives clear guidelines and practical tips about research-based classroom experiences that help all students to be intrinsically motivated to read. ‘Clearly, instruction that provides students with decoding and comprehension skills and strategies is not sufficient’ but Gambrell’s guidelines help teachers to fill the gap. It is refreshing to read about the importance of motivation and engagement in reading.

Key words: Reading  Comprehension  Engagement  Motivation  Sustained Reading  Classroom Libraries

Touchstones: 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10 

10 Things Every Literacy Educator Should Know About Research

Nell K. Duke and Nicole M. Martin

The Reading Teacher Vol. 65 Issue 1 pp. 9–22 DOI:10.1598/RT.65.1.2 International Reading Association (now International Literacy Association) Free Access

“Research-based,” “research-proven,” “scientifically based”—in the reading world these days, it seems that the term research is being used everywhere. It is also being misused and misunderstood. The authors of this article Nell K. Duke and Nicole M. Martin,  wrote this article to argue for the value of research for literacy educators, including classroom teachers, coaches, specialists, and professors, and provide some information to help them make better use of research and, at the same time, guard against misuse as schools and teachers plan for and teach literacy. They discuss 10 things they believe every literacy educator should know about research.

Key words: Literacy research  Research-based  Research-proven  Scientifically-based  literacy improvement  Reading  Writing  Evidence for educators

Informing teaching: navigating and translating education best practice

Australian Institute of Teaching and School Leadership (aitsl) 11 March 2021

Evidence is a contested notion and debates continue about how to best determine its quality. Besides research evidence, educators may encounter forms of evidence in their daily life through classroom observations, talking with their students and reviewing their students’ work. These forms of evidence, are legitimate, and can be considered alongside other evidence and triangulated to inform future teaching and learning decisions.
This Spotlight article published by aitsl addresses five questions to consider when navigating best practice in education:

- Quality - How supported is the research?

- Reliability, validity and design study - How robust is the research?

- Sampling - Is the sample appropriate?

- Significance - Are the findings meaningful?

- Implementation - How can this research be applied in practice?

Key words: Evidence informed  Research based  Best practice  Research evidence  Informing practice

Beyond the Core: Advancing Student Success Through the Arts Education Commission of the States

Workman, E.2017

This article briefly summarises a range of North American research that demonstrates how integrating the arts into other core subjects — including dance, music, drama/theatre, media arts and visual arts — can foster children’s deeper learning skills. Critical thinking skills, collaboration, creativity and perseverance are important predictors of long term success.

Key words: Arts-based instruction  Critical thinking  Deeper learning,

Essential Instructional Practices in Literacy - Years K-3

A research team led by Professor Nell Duke at Michigan University USA has informed the development of a set of resources about what is essential for effective literacy classroom practice every day in every classroom.
Key words: Literacy  Research  Reading  Writing  Read aloud  Family engagement  Motivation  Vocabulary  Phonological awareness  Letter sound relationships  Assessment

Essential Instructional Practices in Literacy - Years K-3 - Leadership Tips

A research team led by Professor Nell Duke at Michigan University USA has informed the development of a set of resources about what is essential for effective literacy classroom practice every day in every classroom, see Essential Instructional Practices in Literacy - Years K-3. This resource created by Christine Topfer, has leadership tips to support leaders when implementing the Essential Instructional Practices in literacy in their school.

Key words: Leadership  Literacy  Literacy improvement  Research

Essential Instructional Practices in Literacy - Years K-3 - Remote Learning

A research team led by Professor Nell Duke at Michigan University USA has informed the development of a set of resources about what is essential for effective literacy classroom practice every day in every classroom, see Essential Instructional Practices in Literacy - Years K-3.
This resource, created by Christine Topfer, has suggestions for how to implement the Essential Instructional Practices in Literacy when working in a remote learning context. This resource will support both teachers and leaders.
Key words: Remote learning  Literacy  Research

More Than Words Can Say 

2019 edition Edited by Julie Dyson, National Advocates for Arts Education (NAAE)

A view of literacy through the arts. 

Key words: The Arts  Literacy  Multimedia

The language of climate change science

Julie Hayes and Bronwyn Parkin - PETAA

While Sustainability has been identified as a priority in the Australian Curriculum, teachers are left to work out for themselves how to use the science curriculum to support student understanding of climate change and the relationship to human activity. This PETAA project developed a teaching and learning progression with an aim to support teachers and students in gradually making the links between science and climate change at an appropriate level of understanding for each year level and with support for teachers to teach the language required to make sense of the concepts at each stage.

Key words: Language  Literacy  Australian Curriculum  Science  Learning progressions

Touchstones: 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10

Making a Difference in Learning Through Arts and Pedagogy

Ewing, R. 2018 Australian Council for Educational Research Conference

This brief article highlights the role drama can play in enhancing learners’ social and emotional well-being as well as English and literacy outcomes. Making art through drama and literature enables students to move into transformative spaces in which they can play with possibilities that take them beyond their own perspectives to encourage openness and mindfulness towards the others who share their worlds. Creative arts-rich pedagogies enable students to develop communicative, collaborative and critical literacies (NEA, 2013) that go beyond surface and literal interpretations of literature.

Key words: Arts-rich pedagogy  School drama  Literacy

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