Bowers, J. and Bowers, P.
This article suggests reading instruction should be informed by building teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge about English spellings, namely the knowledge that spelling is organised by both phonology and morphology as English is a morphophonemic language. The authors argue that phonemes and morphemes share leading roles in learning to read and write. This requires demonstrating to the reader how English prioritises the consistent spelling of morphemes over the consistent spelling of phonemes.
Touchstones 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Key words: Spelling Phonics Reading Morphology
Spelling involves the successful conversion of the spoken word into the written word. However, many descriptions of the spelling process reduce it to simply mapping sounds onto letters. This is it is an inadequate description of the skill set required for effective spelling in English which is phonologically opaque. This paper outlines how good spellers draw on several linguistic resources, alongside a metacognitive disposition to have a conscience about their spelling—a felt responsibility to get it right for their readers. The linguistic resources they draw upon are phonological knowledge, morphological knowledge, orthographic knowledge, etymological knowledge, visual knowledge, and semantic knowledge. The paper makes the case for all students to taught all the linguistic threads that weave through words and that is key to equity of outcomes in spelling. This International Literacy Association: Literacy Research Panel Paper's Principal Author is Misty Adoniou, University of Canberra, Australia.
Touchstones 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Key words: Spelling Assessment
Dr Misty Adoniou
This article describes essential teacher knowledge for teaching spelling, along with a description of how this knowledge may convert to effective classroom pedagogy. The article is the result of a study of 14 beginning teachers who were participants in a broader study of their experience of teaching literacy in the first year in the classroom after graduation. The broad aim of the study was to determine if there were changes that could be made to their teacher preparation that would better prepare them to teach literacy in their first year teaching in the classroom. Teaching spelling was quickly identified as an area of literacy in which they were struggling. They were nervous about their own spelling skills but also had a limited pedagogy for spelling. The article describes the spelling knowledge they needed to have, with reference to the challenges they faced and presents the changes that were subsequently made to the teacher preparation of future teachers at the university from which they graduated.
Touchstones 5, 6, 8, 9, 10
Key words: Teacher knowledge Teacher education Spelling Phonics Writing
Jan Turbill Language Arts 77, (3), 2000
This paper foregrounds the significant place the process of proofreading has in developing a spelling conscience in learners. Most teachers expect students to engage in the process of proofreading but few explicitly teach the process or strategic action required.
The strategic action discussed in the article can be extended and updated by reading other articles available on the Foundation website spelling section which highlight the importance of explicitly teaching all linguistic threads that weave through words.
Touchstones 5, 6, 8, 9, 10
Key words: Spelling Proofreading Word structure
Kirby, J. R; Bowers, P.N; Queen's University in What Works? Research into Practice Research Monograph # 41
In this short clear article, the authors explain morphology – how words are composed as meaningful parts – in particular affixes such as prefixes and vowel and consonant suffixes. They say that sensitivity to morphological structure and the ability to manipulate that structure (that is “morphological awareness”):
•predicts reading development
•contributes to word meaning and to reading comprehension
•increases vocabulary and reading achievement.
They suggest that teachers can help children by engaging in “morphological instruction” and they provide useful examples of what teachers may do. If you may want to read further, try: The Effects of Morphological Instruction on Literacy Skills: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Peter N. Bowers, John R. Kirby and S. Hélène Deacon. Review of Educational Research Vol. 80, No. 2 (June 2010), pp. 144-179
Key words: Morphology Word structure Reading comprehension Vocabulary
Beryl Exley ALEA Practically Primary June 2020
Intelligent reading teachers know that learning to read is a journey, from the place where the child first experiences language and starts to make sense of sounds and their written representations whilst being nurtured in the bosom of the family, to a place of reading a wide range of disciplinary texts fluently, with meaning and critical intent.
Key words: Phonics Reading Writing
Devonshire, V; Morris, P; Fluck, M. University of Portsmouth, UK Learning and Instruction 25 (2013) 85-94
The authors explain that English has a deep or opaque
orthography since only 56% of its words can be predicted by phonological rules.
Highly transparent languages such as Finnish, Italian and Spanish have an
almost one-to-one mapping between letters and sounds. The authors suggest that
for transparent languages where there is a close mapping of letters and sounds
an approach known as phonics would seem highly appropriate.However, for English it may be beneficial to
teach young children multiple levels of representation
explicitly. They tested this view by explicitly teaching morphology,
etymology, phonology, and form rules to 120 English children 5-to7 years old.
They compared the effectiveness of this instruction with a phonics-based
condition and found the comprehensive intervention significantly improved the
literacy skills of the children including both word reading and spelling
compared with the phonics condition. They suggested that early teaching of
English literacy should include instruction in morphology, etymology and rules
about form in addition to traditional phonics.
Key words: Phonics Spelling Morphology Phonology Etymology
Sedita, Joan Published in “Insights on Learning Disabilities” 2(1) 33-45, 2005
This article outlines the importance of
effective vocabulary instruction across all year levels and learning areas. The
high correlation in the research literature of word knowledge with reading
comprehension indicates that if students do not adequately and steadily grow their
vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension will be affected. Sedita promotes
developing word consciousness; having an interest and awareness of words. Word
conscious students enjoy learning new words and engaging in word play. The
article states that all students benefit from hearing language that
incorporates the vocabulary and syntax (sentence structures) in high-quality
Key words: Vocabulary instruction Word consciousness Reading comprehension Research Word structure