International Journal of Educational Development Vol 98 April 2023, 102748

by Pasi Sahlberg

This article describes the emergence of the global education reform movement (GERM) and its main manifestations in national education policies and reforms since the 1990 s. The aim of this article is to show how GERM has evolved during the past decades as a neoliberal educational change orthodoxy and how it has become challenged by the international comparative data and research.

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